Summary Making Summaries are often found in academic work. A summaryis the shortest account of the main content and conclusions of the original text. In fact it is enumeration of the main thematic point of the original paper which is made up of the words and phrases borrowed from the text and your own wording of them into a very small number of sentences. When writing a summary, you may adhere to the following plan 1) the heading
73 2) the theme of the paper 3) the key problems (thematic points) discussed 4) the conclusion at which the author arrives. The manner of presenting the material is very concise and it tends to be critical. The summary writer appreciates the material from his point of view and uses as a rule a wide range of clichés, which can be divided into several groups 1) those introducing the heading and the author The article (text) is headlined … The headline of the article (I have read) is … The article is entitled … The author of the article (text) is … The article is written by … 2) those introducing the leading theme of the original paper The text deals with ... The article is devoted to. The chapter is about.. The article touches upon… 3) those drawing the reader's attention to the major points of the contents The author emphasizes the idea of. The author points out that ... Attention is drawn to the fact. In the opinion of the author it is . 4) those introducing secondary information Further the author reports The author states… The article goes onto say… According to the text … 5) those forming a conclusion to which the reader's attention is drawn The author comes to the conclusion that... The author concludes by saying ... The basic approach of the author is that, etc.