Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005

Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. The term Economics

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Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. The term Economics derived from the Greek words οίκω [okos], 'house, and
νέμω [nemo], 'rules' hence it means household management. There is no unanimous consensus upon its definition. Various definitions describe different aspects of this social science. We may mention some of them. Economics is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. This involves analyzing the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services, and their management the study of choice and decision-making in a world of limited resources the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth, and with the various related problems of labor, finance, taxation, etc. research on such factors as interest rates, gross national product, inflation, unemployment, and inventories, as tools to predict the direction of the economy. Economics is said to be normative when it recommends one choice over another, or when a subjective value judgment is made. Conversely, economics is said to be positive when it tries objectively to predict and explain consequences of choices, given a set of assumptions and/or a set of observations. Economics is the study of how society chooses to allocate its scarce resources to the production of goods and services in order to satisfy unlimited wants. Society makes two kinds of choices economy-wide, or macro, choices and individual, or micro, choices. The prefixes macro and micro come from the Greek words meaning large and small respectively. Reflecting the macro and micro perspectives, economics consists of two main branches macroeconomics and microeconomics. Economics, which focuses on measurable variables, is broadly divided into two main branches microeconomics, and macroeconomics. Microeconomics literally, very small economics) is the study of the economic behaviour of

70 individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of production and income among them. It considers individuals both as suppliers of labour and capital and as the ultimate consumers of the final product. It analyzes firms both as suppliers of products and as consumers of labour and capital. It deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, Microeconomics seeks to analyze the market form or other types of mechanisms that establish relative prices amongst goods and services and/or allocates society's resources amongst their many alternative uses.
Macroeconomics considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. There appear to be three methods by which economic phenomena maybe investigated. The first consists mainly in deductive analysis. Proceeding from a few simple premises based upon general observation a researcher makes broad generalizations. The second is the historical method, which seeks an understanding of existing institutions by tracing their evolutions from their origins in the past. The third is statistical induction, which endeavours, by the analysis of numerical data, to develop quantitative knowledge of economic phenomena. Anyway, it is now coming to be recognized that these methods are complementary rather than mutually exclusive.
A successful theory provides insights into the physical or social relationships it studies. Economic theories are developed to explain such important observable quantities as the production, prices and consumption of goods and services, the employment of workers, and levels of saving and investment. Economic variables are quantities that can have more than one value. For example, the price of an item is an economic variable representing what we must give up in exchange for each unit of that item. Price is an economic variable because it can go up or down as changes occur in the economy. An economic theory of price seeks to determine the causes for changes in the price of an item. An economic model is a simplified way of expressing how some sector of the economy functions. An economic model contains assumptions that establish relationships among economic variables. We use logic, graphs, or mathematics to determine the consequences of the assumptions. In this way we can use the model to make predictions about how a change in economic conditions results in changes in decisions affecting economic variables. Economists often use the term model as a synonym for theory.


Белорусский государственный университет
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Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
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Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
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Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
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История и современность»,
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Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
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The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
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University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
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What is biology?
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Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
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