Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005


Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. The term Economics



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Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. The term Economics derived from the Greek words οίκω [okos], 'house, and
νέμω [nemo], 'rules' hence it means household management. There is no unanimous consensus upon its definition. Various definitions describe different aspects of this social science. We may mention some of them. Economics is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. This involves analyzing the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services, and their management the study of choice and decision-making in a world of limited resources the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth, and with the various related problems of labor, finance, taxation, etc. research on such factors as interest rates, gross national product, inflation, unemployment, and inventories, as tools to predict the direction of the economy. Economics is said to be normative when it recommends one choice over another, or when a subjective value judgment is made. Conversely, economics is said to be positive when it tries objectively to predict and explain consequences of choices, given a set of assumptions and/or a set of observations. Economics is the study of how society chooses to allocate its scarce resources to the production of goods and services in order to satisfy unlimited wants. Society makes two kinds of choices economy-wide, or macro, choices and individual, or micro, choices. The prefixes macro and micro come from the Greek words meaning large and small respectively. Reflecting the macro and micro perspectives, economics consists of two main branches macroeconomics and microeconomics. Economics, which focuses on measurable variables, is broadly divided into two main branches microeconomics, and macroeconomics. Microeconomics literally, very small economics) is the study of the economic behaviour of


70 individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of production and income among them. It considers individuals both as suppliers of labour and capital and as the ultimate consumers of the final product. It analyzes firms both as suppliers of products and as consumers of labour and capital. It deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, Microeconomics seeks to analyze the market form or other types of mechanisms that establish relative prices amongst goods and services and/or allocates society's resources amongst their many alternative uses.
Macroeconomics considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. There appear to be three methods by which economic phenomena maybe investigated. The first consists mainly in deductive analysis. Proceeding from a few simple premises based upon general observation a researcher makes broad generalizations. The second is the historical method, which seeks an understanding of existing institutions by tracing their evolutions from their origins in the past. The third is statistical induction, which endeavours, by the analysis of numerical data, to develop quantitative knowledge of economic phenomena. Anyway, it is now coming to be recognized that these methods are complementary rather than mutually exclusive.
A successful theory provides insights into the physical or social relationships it studies. Economic theories are developed to explain such important observable quantities as the production, prices and consumption of goods and services, the employment of workers, and levels of saving and investment. Economic variables are quantities that can have more than one value. For example, the price of an item is an economic variable representing what we must give up in exchange for each unit of that item. Price is an economic variable because it can go up or down as changes occur in the economy. An economic theory of price seeks to determine the causes for changes in the price of an item. An economic model is a simplified way of expressing how some sector of the economy functions. An economic model contains assumptions that establish relationships among economic variables. We use logic, graphs, or mathematics to determine the consequences of the assumptions. In this way we can use the model to make predictions about how a change in economic conditions results in changes in decisions affecting economic variables. Economists often use the term model as a synonym for theory.


71


Белорусский государственный университет
Scan the text and find some additional information about the
As you know the first universities were founded in the byzan-
The old scottish university
In the text below an international student shares his experience
English speaking countries, especially great britain and amer-
Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
The bachelor’s degree
Since there is no full equivalence in foreign and native aca-
Research course
What qualities does research demand from postgraduate stu-
Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate
Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
Требования к оформлению материалов
Being a conference attendee you are sure to fill in a registra-
История и современность»,
While taking part in the discussion the participants are sup-
Below you will find the text contributed by one of the former
Check the knowledge of the topical vocabulary identifying eng-
Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
Short research visits
The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
Following supplementary documents should be included with
University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
Interests: travel, reading. jazz, tennis. personal:
Work experience:
If an applicant meets the requirements of the host university the
Every applicant is expected to draft a tentative programme of the
Study visits can be individual and those arranged as a partner-
As you have learned from the above, study visits can be ar-
Further follows information supplied by a former post-
Notes: reap
Any research visit is finalized with a report on the visit’s out-
Further you will find reports on research visits supplied by in-
Отчет о научной стажировке в университете де мино рубановой в.в.
Section vb bresearch supervision
University. compare it with what you have at bsu.
Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students
Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor.
Write an essay on
Kent faculty, professor eglit served in several capacities, including
Clarity of writing.
Typical sections.
Title of the report.
Examples of an introduction
Acknowledgments.
Making oral presentations
Making the presentation.
Study the texts given below, use additional information re-
Understanding history
Summary making
Now try to translate a summary of a scientific paper from rus-
Section vii
In the extraction from scientific prose given below we hope not
Complete the sentences supplying them with information on
Below find the speculations of a former postgraduate student
Summarizing translation can be helpful for you while compos-
Below there follows a summary of the research conducted in
Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following
What is biology?
What is chemistry
Physics what exactly is physics? what discoveries
What is philosophy
What is sociology
Journalism is information
Communication
Theories of communication
Applying theory to practice
List of abbreviations
Краткий русско-английский словарь
Л ляпсус, описка – lapse м
Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
Business bureau



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