Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005


beyond the age of 18 pay fees for their tuition as well as their



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beyond the age of 18 pay fees for their tuition as well as their
living costs. In our country further education is associated
with postgraduate studies, the level which assumes to a larger
extent a lot of research work, acquiring knowledge of new
methodologies and new trends. Thus in Section I we’ll start dis-
cussing the university education in our country and abroad and
in Section II proceed to academic degrees and postgraduate
studies.

Belarus: Education in the 21
st
Century
Many countries consider education a major vehicle of social advancement. Training of highly qualified specialists, capable of solving the most complex problems of modern society is the main priority of higher education. The efforts of our scientists have always been focused on the fundamental problems of humanities, natural and social sciences. Knowledge, science and culture open the prospects into the future for every person. At the end of the century the system of higher and further education in Belarus underwent a process of great reforms. They were initiated to provide closer links between education and technological needs of industry. New goals were set to link higher education more directly to the economy, improve the quality of scientific research, provide educational and research institutions with more modern technology and new laboratory facilities. The major significance of the reforms was to move toward the democratization of university administration and the “humanitarization” of the educational process in terms of students individual aptitudes and needs. A distinguishing feature of our universities is that they are becoming internationally oriented. We have joined the European Cultural Convention which enables us to participate in all projects concerning higher and further education, academic mobility and recognition of qualification. The universities also expand their cooperation with such authoritative international organizations as UNESCO and the Council of Europe. The need to make education more democratic and universal arises from the fact that our country is integrating with the European community. In this respect educators have to think of how our universities should educate their students about the rest of the world. The world in which most adult Belarusians grew to maturity no longer exists. The cold war is over. Issues such as environment, ex-


7 changes rate, and economic competition, public health, national security, poverty, population control, and human rights affect every country domestically as well as internationally. Under these circumstances attending to domestic needs requires understanding of national, cultural, and socioeconomic boundaries. The characteristic feature and the main trend in modern higher ad further education is not only to check students knowledge but develop their abilities and creative thinking. Today’s scientific and technological progress demands of the university graduates to be prepared to deepen their knowledge individually and adapt themselves quickly to the changes in the branches or science or industry they have chosen as their speciality or research. In addition to offering programs based on traditional academic disciplines, higher education must develop problem-focused programs of study that are more practical than theoretical and are oriented around problems of the real world. Much has already been done and is being done to transform the national system of education. A wide range of non-state schools, colleges and institutes have been introduced. There have been certain curriculum changes starting from 1992. Some higher educational establishments began changing tuition in the above-mentioned direction. Of course, university education in Belarus still faces a great variety of problems, connected with implementation of new disciplines, retraining of the faculty, reorienting university policies and programs towards new goals. But if we want to prosper in the new environment of the st century, our universities must truly orient themselves around new goals. None of these goals will be achieved quickly and easily but the benefits of putting them in place will far exceed the efforts required.
1. What is the role of education in modern society Has it changed a lot with a course of time
2. At the turn of the century higher and further education underwent great reforms. What are these reforms aimed at
3. What are the distinguishing features and the main trends in higher and further education
4. What does the need to make universities more democratic and internationally oriented arise from
5. Why is it necessary to develop creative thinking What are the ways of achieving this goal
6. What difficulties do we face on the way of reforming the system of education
7. Do you agree that reforming the system of education we shouldn’t forget our national interests and values in education We must preserve all the achievements of the previous school not to destroy the whole system.


8


Белорусский государственный университет
Scan the text and find some additional information about the
As you know the first universities were founded in the byzan-
The old scottish university
In the text below an international student shares his experience
English speaking countries, especially great britain and amer-
Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
The bachelor’s degree
Since there is no full equivalence in foreign and native aca-
Research course
What qualities does research demand from postgraduate stu-
Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate
Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
Требования к оформлению материалов
Being a conference attendee you are sure to fill in a registra-
История и современность»,
While taking part in the discussion the participants are sup-
Below you will find the text contributed by one of the former
Check the knowledge of the topical vocabulary identifying eng-
Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
Short research visits
The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
Following supplementary documents should be included with
University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
Interests: travel, reading. jazz, tennis. personal:
Work experience:
If an applicant meets the requirements of the host university the
Every applicant is expected to draft a tentative programme of the
Study visits can be individual and those arranged as a partner-
As you have learned from the above, study visits can be ar-
Further follows information supplied by a former post-
Notes: reap
Any research visit is finalized with a report on the visit’s out-
Further you will find reports on research visits supplied by in-
Отчет о научной стажировке в университете де мино рубановой в.в.
Section vb bresearch supervision
University. compare it with what you have at bsu.
Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students
Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor.
Write an essay on
Kent faculty, professor eglit served in several capacities, including
Clarity of writing.
Typical sections.
Title of the report.
Examples of an introduction
Acknowledgments.
Making oral presentations
Making the presentation.
Study the texts given below, use additional information re-
Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. the term economics
Understanding history
Summary making
Now try to translate a summary of a scientific paper from rus-
Section vii
In the extraction from scientific prose given below we hope not
Complete the sentences supplying them with information on
Below find the speculations of a former postgraduate student
Summarizing translation can be helpful for you while compos-
Below there follows a summary of the research conducted in
Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following
What is biology?
What is chemistry
Physics what exactly is physics? what discoveries
What is philosophy
What is sociology
Journalism is information
Communication
Theories of communication
Applying theory to practice
List of abbreviations
Краткий русско-английский словарь
Л ляпсус, описка – lapse м
Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
Business bureau



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