Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005


English speaking countries, especially Great Britain and Amer-



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English speaking countries, especially Great Britain and Amer-
ica, have much in common in their systems of education. But
still there is a great difference due to their different cultural
and historic backgrounds. Spot these differences after reading
the text Higher education in the USA. How do you account
for the diversity of the American system of education
Higher Education in the USA
For a very longtime America has led the world in higher education, quantitatively at least. In 1825 England still had only two universities, Oxford and Cambridge. The United States already had over fifty colleges fora smaller population. By now, in addition to hundreds of junior colleges (with two-year courses, teachers colleges and special schools, there are over 2,000 universities, colleges or other institutions with four year courses leading to bachelors degrees, though only some of these postgraduates work as well, for masters degrees and doctorates. Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million goon for higher education. Nearly half of all people aged nineteen are in full-time education, but only half of these successfully complete full four year courses for bachelors degrees. Some attend junior colleges with two-year courses (from which they may transfer most start full four-year degree courses. Most students receive federal loans to cover part


14 of their studies much smaller numbers receive federal grants, or scholarships or bursaries from other sources. Virtually all pay part of their costs themselves, from family contributions or from part-time work or both. Most college students are in public institutions, a minority in private ones. Every state has its own full university system, and in a big state there are many separate state campuses, general and special, at different levels. In terms of research output and of Nobel prizes won by academic staff, the most prestigious is the University of California at Berkeley (across the bay from San Francisco. It, and the University’s campus at Los Angeles, are two major institutions in the California state system, but there are many dozens of other campuses in that system. Some of the best-known private universities are the oldest ones in the North East, known informally as the Ivy League. These include Harvard, Yale and Princeton. The research carried on at Harvard and at its newer neighbor in Cambridge, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has contributed to the prosperity of the Boston area, though other private and public universities nearby also have some share in this development. In general the system of higher education in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institutions (1) the university which may contain (a) several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s (four- year) degree and (bone or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s degree to obtain a master’s or doctoral degree (2) the four-year undergraduate institution – the colleges – most of which are non part of a university (3) the technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six month to four years in duration and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming (4) and the two-year, or community college, from which students may enter many professions or may transfer to four-year colleges or universities. Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the source of its funding. The sheer diversity of American higher education, so baffling to foreigners, baffles many Americans as well. There were, according to the latest official count, 3,075 accredited colleges and universities in the United States. Many of them have their own separate lobbies in Washington the community colleges, the land-grant schools and other state universities, the former teacher’s colleges and regional state universities, the predominantly black schools, the private colleges. Not to mention women’s schools and Catholic schools affiliated with dozens of other religious denominations…


15


Белорусский государственный университет
Scan the text and find some additional information about the
As you know the first universities were founded in the byzan-
The old scottish university
In the text below an international student shares his experience
Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
The bachelor’s degree
Since there is no full equivalence in foreign and native aca-
Research course
What qualities does research demand from postgraduate stu-
Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate
Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
Требования к оформлению материалов
Being a conference attendee you are sure to fill in a registra-
История и современность»,
While taking part in the discussion the participants are sup-
Below you will find the text contributed by one of the former
Check the knowledge of the topical vocabulary identifying eng-
Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
Short research visits
The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
Following supplementary documents should be included with
University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
Interests: travel, reading. jazz, tennis. personal:
Work experience:
If an applicant meets the requirements of the host university the
Every applicant is expected to draft a tentative programme of the
Study visits can be individual and those arranged as a partner-
As you have learned from the above, study visits can be ar-
Further follows information supplied by a former post-
Notes: reap
Any research visit is finalized with a report on the visit’s out-
Further you will find reports on research visits supplied by in-
Отчет о научной стажировке в университете де мино рубановой в.в.
Section vb bresearch supervision
University. compare it with what you have at bsu.
Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students
Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor.
Write an essay on
Kent faculty, professor eglit served in several capacities, including
Clarity of writing.
Typical sections.
Title of the report.
Examples of an introduction
Acknowledgments.
Making oral presentations
Making the presentation.
Study the texts given below, use additional information re-
Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. the term economics
Understanding history
Summary making
Now try to translate a summary of a scientific paper from rus-
Section vii
In the extraction from scientific prose given below we hope not
Complete the sentences supplying them with information on
Below find the speculations of a former postgraduate student
Summarizing translation can be helpful for you while compos-
Below there follows a summary of the research conducted in
Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following
What is biology?
What is chemistry
Physics what exactly is physics? what discoveries
What is philosophy
What is sociology
Journalism is information
Communication
Theories of communication
Applying theory to practice
List of abbreviations
Краткий русско-английский словарь
Л ляпсус, описка – lapse м
Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
Business bureau



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