The Newer Civic Universities These were originally technical colleges setup by local authorities in the first sixty years of this century. Their upgrading to university status took place in two waves. The first wave occurred in the mid s, when ten of them (e.g. Aston in Birmingham, Salford near Manchester and Strachclyde in Glasgow) were promoted in this way. Then, in the early s, another thirty became 'polytechnics, which meant that as well as continuing with their formers courses, they were allowed to teach degree courses (the degrees being awarded by a national body. In the early s most of these (and also some other colleges) became universities. Their most notable feature is flexibility with regard to studying arrangements, including 'sandwich' courses (i.e. studies interrupted by periods of time outside education. They are now all financed by central government.