Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005


Theories of Communication



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Theories of Communication
A message may move from the sender through the media to the receiver without necessarily conveying ideas and getting them accepted. Yet ideas do get accepted, and there are several theories about how this is done.


104 The two-step flow theory assumes that there is a definite group of "opinion leaders" who get information from the media, analyze and interpret it, and then pass it along to the public. The theory fails due to the fact that no permanent group of people serves as opinion leaders on all subjects. The multistep flow theory holds that there are opinion leaders on many different subjects and that they have varying degrees of influence. The opinion group theory is fairly well accepted. It recognizes opinion leaders but does not assume that they are the sole influence on the formation of public opinion. The basic emphasis is on the function of discussion in crystallizing opinion. People of similar interests discuss mutual problems and arrive at common conclusions. People try to conform to group opinion and to avoid disagreement with the majority. Anyone may belong to several groups
— at work, at church, at leisure. Grouping maybe by age, occupation, place of residence, and soon. Whenever there is a common interest, there is formal or informal grouping. The diffusion theory was developed in the s. It holds that there are five steps in the process of acquiring new ideas
Awareness — the person discovers the idea.
Interest — the person tries to get more information.
Trial — the person tries the idea on others.
Evaluation — the person decides whether the idea is in his or her own self- interest.
Adoption — the person incorporates the idea into his or her opinion. In this model, the public relations writer is most influential at the awareness and interest stages of the process. People, for example, often become aware of a product, service, or idea through traditional mass outlets such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. Indeed, the primary purpose of advertising in the mass media is to create awareness, the first step in moving people toward the purchase of a product or support of an idea. At the interest stage, more direct media — pamphlets, brochures, direct mail, videotape presentations, even conferences and symposiums — play an important role. Once awareness has been created, people turn to more detailed information in these direct media channels. The hierarchy-of-needs theory has been applied in a number of disciplines, including communication. It is based on the work of Abraham H.Maslow, who listed basic human needs on a scale from basic survival to more complex ones
Physiological needs. These are the constituents of self-preservation. They include air, water, food, clothing, shelter, rest, and health — the minimum necessities of life.


105
Safety needs. These comprise protection against danger, loss of life or property, restriction of activity, and loss of freedom.
Social needs. These include acceptance by others, belonging to groups, and enjoying both friendship and love.
Ego needs. These include self-esteem, self-confidence, accomplishment, status, recognition, appreciation, and the respect of others.
Self-fulfilment needs. These represent the need to grow to one's full stature — simply as a human being or in terms of some special talent, gift, or interest. Effective messages carry components of these needs from the standpoint of helping people achieve them in someway. In sum we're talking about the self- interest of the audience. Indeed, if you can keep in mind the self-interest of your target audiences when formulating messages, you will bean effective communicator. Most public relations activity is aimed at lower-level needs because people are generally more concerned about their families, jobs, and homes than they are about more abstract goals. Economics may get most of the attention, but don't forget that there are many people who do have non-economic interests.


Белорусский государственный университет
Scan the text and find some additional information about the
As you know the first universities were founded in the byzan-
The old scottish university
In the text below an international student shares his experience
English speaking countries, especially great britain and amer-
Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
The bachelor’s degree
Since there is no full equivalence in foreign and native aca-
Research course
What qualities does research demand from postgraduate stu-
Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate
Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
Требования к оформлению материалов
Being a conference attendee you are sure to fill in a registra-
История и современность»,
While taking part in the discussion the participants are sup-
Below you will find the text contributed by one of the former
Check the knowledge of the topical vocabulary identifying eng-
Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
Short research visits
The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
Following supplementary documents should be included with
University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
Interests: travel, reading. jazz, tennis. personal:
Work experience:
If an applicant meets the requirements of the host university the
Every applicant is expected to draft a tentative programme of the
Study visits can be individual and those arranged as a partner-
As you have learned from the above, study visits can be ar-
Further follows information supplied by a former post-
Notes: reap
Any research visit is finalized with a report on the visit’s out-
Further you will find reports on research visits supplied by in-
Отчет о научной стажировке в университете де мино рубановой в.в.
Section vb bresearch supervision
University. compare it with what you have at bsu.
Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students
Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor.
Write an essay on
Kent faculty, professor eglit served in several capacities, including
Clarity of writing.
Typical sections.
Title of the report.
Examples of an introduction
Acknowledgments.
Making oral presentations
Making the presentation.
Study the texts given below, use additional information re-
Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. the term economics
Understanding history
Summary making
Now try to translate a summary of a scientific paper from rus-
Section vii
In the extraction from scientific prose given below we hope not
Complete the sentences supplying them with information on
Below find the speculations of a former postgraduate student
Summarizing translation can be helpful for you while compos-
Below there follows a summary of the research conducted in
Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following
What is biology?
What is chemistry
Physics what exactly is physics? what discoveries
What is philosophy
What is sociology
Journalism is information
Communication
Applying theory to practice
List of abbreviations
Краткий русско-английский словарь
Л ляпсус, описка – lapse м
Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
Business bureau



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