Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005



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What Is Biology?

Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. The word 'biology' formed by combining the Greek (βios; (bios), meaning 'life, and
λόγος (logos), meaning study of. It is concerned with the characteristics, classification, and behaviors of organisms, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the environment. Biology is such abroad field, covering the minute workings of chemical machines inside our cells, to broad scale concepts of ecosystems and global climate change. Biologists study intimate details of the human brain, the composition of our genes, and even the functioning of our reproductive system. Biologists recently all but completed the deciphering of the human genome, the sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bases that may determine much of our innate


89 capabilities and predispositions to certain forms of behavior and illnesses. Unlike physics, biology does not usually describe systems in terms of objects which obey immutable physical laws described by mathematics. Nevertheless, the biological sciences are characterized and unified by several major underlying principles and concepts universality, evolution, diversity, continuity, genetics, homeostasis, and interactions. The most salient example of biological universality is that all living things share a common carbon-based biochemistry and in particular pass on their characteristics via genetic material, which is based on nucleic acids such as DNA and which uses a common genetic code with only minor variations. Another universal principle is that all organisms (that is. all forms of life on Earth except for viruses) are made of cells. Similarly, all organisms share common developmental processes.
The central organizing concept in biology is that all life has a common origin and has changed and developed through the process of evolution. Biologists organize and analyze evolutionary relationships through various methods, including phylogenetics, phenetics, and cladistics.
Despite its underlying unity, life exhibits an astonishingly wide diversity in morphology, behavior, and life histories. In order to grapple with this diversity, biologists attempt to classify all living things. Traditionally, living things have been divided into five kingdoms Monera — Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia. However, many scientists now consider this five-kingdom system to be outdated. Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system Archaea (originally Archaebacteria) -Bacteria originally Eubacteria) -- Eukaryota. Further, each kingdom is broken down continuously until each species is seperately classified. The order is l)Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Homeostasis is the ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable condition by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. All living organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, exhibit homeostasis.
Every living thing interacts with other organisms and its environment. One reason that biological systems can be difficult to study is that so many different interactions with other organisms and the environment are possible, even on the smallest of scales. Matters become more complex when two or more different species interact in an ecosystem. Studies of this type are the province of ecology Biology has become such avast research enterprise that it is not generally regarded as a single discipline, but as a number of clustered sub- disciplines. The first group consists of those disciplines that study the basic structures of living systems cells, genes etc the second group considers


90 the operation of these structures at the level of tissues, organs, and bodies the third group considers organisms and their histories the final constellation of disciplines focuses on their interactions. It is important to note, however, that these boundaries, groupings, and descriptions area simplified characterization of biological research. In reality, the boundaries between disciplines are fluid, and most disciplines frequently borrow techniques from each other. For example, evolutionary biology leans heavily on techniques from molecular biology to determine DNA sequences, which assist in understanding the genetic variation of a population and physiology borrows extensively from cell biology in describing the function of organ systems


Белорусский государственный университет
Scan the text and find some additional information about the
As you know the first universities were founded in the byzan-
The old scottish university
In the text below an international student shares his experience
English speaking countries, especially great britain and amer-
Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
The bachelor’s degree
Since there is no full equivalence in foreign and native aca-
Research course
What qualities does research demand from postgraduate stu-
Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate
Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
Требования к оформлению материалов
Being a conference attendee you are sure to fill in a registra-
История и современность»,
While taking part in the discussion the participants are sup-
Below you will find the text contributed by one of the former
Check the knowledge of the topical vocabulary identifying eng-
Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
Short research visits
The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
Following supplementary documents should be included with
University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
Interests: travel, reading. jazz, tennis. personal:
Work experience:
If an applicant meets the requirements of the host university the
Every applicant is expected to draft a tentative programme of the
Study visits can be individual and those arranged as a partner-
As you have learned from the above, study visits can be ar-
Further follows information supplied by a former post-
Notes: reap
Any research visit is finalized with a report on the visit’s out-
Further you will find reports on research visits supplied by in-
Отчет о научной стажировке в университете де мино рубановой в.в.
Section vb bresearch supervision
University. compare it with what you have at bsu.
Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students
Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor.
Write an essay on
Kent faculty, professor eglit served in several capacities, including
Clarity of writing.
Typical sections.
Title of the report.
Examples of an introduction
Acknowledgments.
Making oral presentations
Making the presentation.
Study the texts given below, use additional information re-
Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. the term economics
Understanding history
Summary making
Now try to translate a summary of a scientific paper from rus-
Section vii
In the extraction from scientific prose given below we hope not
Complete the sentences supplying them with information on
Below find the speculations of a former postgraduate student
Summarizing translation can be helpful for you while compos-
Below there follows a summary of the research conducted in
Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following
What is chemistry
Physics what exactly is physics? what discoveries
What is philosophy
What is sociology
Journalism is information
Communication
Theories of communication
Applying theory to practice
List of abbreviations
Краткий русско-английский словарь
Л ляпсус, описка – lapse м
Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
Business bureau



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