Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов минск 2005


Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following



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Now speak on your research paper dwelling upon the following
issues.
– composition of the dissertation
– problems discussed in the introductory part
– topicality and novelty of your research
– methods of scientific analysis applied
– your findings (anticipated results
– assessment of the results obtained
practical application
– possibility for further research
– your reports, articles on the problem under research.


87

SUPPLEMENT

Geography
Geography is the study of the surface of the Earth. The word is derived from the Greek words geo (the Earth) and graphein (to write. Geography is the exact and organized knowledge of the distribution of phenomena on the surface of the Earth. It deals with the form and motion of the planet so far as a knowledge of these is necessary for fixing positions on the surface, more fully with the forms of the lithosphere or stony crust of the Earth, the extent of the water envelope or hydrosphere, the movements of the water and of the all surrounding atmosphere, the distribution of plants and animals and very fully with that of the human race and all the interactions and relationships between these distributions. The surface of the Earth is the interface of the atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. It provides the habitat, or environment, in which humans are able to live. This habitable zone has a number of special characteristics. One of the most important is the complex interaction among many physical, biologic, and human elements of the Earth, such as land surface, climate, water, soil, vegetation, agriculture, and urbanization. Another characteristic is the high variability of the environment from place to place – hot tropics to cold polar regions, dry deserts to humid equatorial forests, vast level plains to rugged mountains and uninhabited icecaps to densely settled metropolitan areas. Yet another is the consistency with which significant patterns occur, which makes possible generalizations about distributions obvious examples are measurements of temperature and rainfall which are the most important climatic elements affecting farming and many other human activities. Geographic study is particularly concerned with location, with areal patterns with the interrelationships of phenomena (especially of the relationship between human society and the land, as in ecology, with regionalization, and with ties among areas. Typical areas of inquiry include where people live in what sort of patterns they are distributed over the Earth’s surface what factors of environment, resources, culture, and economic development account for this distribution whether or not significant regions can be recognized by types of population, livelihood, and culture, and what types of movements and relations occur among places. Geography is a synthetic science, largely dependent for its data on there- sults of specialized sciences such as astronomy, physics, geology, oceanography, meteorology, biology and antropology and always having respect to the


88 natural regions of the world. Viewed in this light geography is a unified and definite science of wide outlook and comprehensive grasp. Geography is divided into systematic fields and regional specializations, which can be grouped under three main headings physical geography, human geography and regional geography. There is a number of subdivisions, such as mathematical geography, which deals with the shape, size and movements of the earth political geography, which studies the world’s political divisions economic geography deals with estimation of the environment and resources, distribution of economy and population historical geography the nature of which has been interpreted in a wide variety of ways. Human geography, is sometimes regarded as synonymous with anthropogeography. Physical geography, which usually includes a study of climate, natural vegetation and oceanography, is sometimes assumed, to be synonymous with physiography. The principal activities of the physical geographer include observing, measuring and describing the surface of the earth. The growing complexity of geographic inquiry has resulted in increased specialization within the field. The principal branches of physical geography are geomorphology, climatology, biogeorgraphy and soil geography. As human activity has become more able to affect the landscape and ecology of the world, two more branches have emerged resource management and environmental studies. Geographers use a variety of tools to carryout their work. The tools that most people identify with geography are those that are still most important to geographers today – globes and maps. Modern geographers, however, also use tools such as aerial photographs, satellite images, and computer programs to help them analyze the interactions between people and their environments. The best tool to use often depends on the geographic theme that is the focus of the research.


Белорусский государственный университет
Scan the text and find some additional information about the
As you know the first universities were founded in the byzan-
The old scottish university
In the text below an international student shares his experience
English speaking countries, especially great britain and amer-
Harvard university is the pride of the usa. like oxford and
Section ii academic degrees and
The bachelor’s degree
Since there is no full equivalence in foreign and native aca-
Research course
What qualities does research demand from postgraduate stu-
Why undertake postgraduate study
Emily wright
I don’t know what to do – this will give me more time to decide
There can be less optimistic opinions about taking postgraduate
Research the area of work you wish to enter to identify how po-
Section iii
Требования к оформлению материалов
Being a conference attendee you are sure to fill in a registra-
История и современность»,
While taking part in the discussion the participants are sup-
Below you will find the text contributed by one of the former
Check the knowledge of the topical vocabulary identifying eng-
Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended according to the
Ec-funded research visit opportunities in computational science
Short research visits
The bsu maintains close contacts with a wide range of univer-
Following supplementary documents should be included with
University of illinois at urbana/champaign
July 1990 – august 1993 european trade review –
Interests: travel, reading. jazz, tennis. personal:
Work experience:
If an applicant meets the requirements of the host university the
Every applicant is expected to draft a tentative programme of the
Study visits can be individual and those arranged as a partner-
As you have learned from the above, study visits can be ar-
Further follows information supplied by a former post-
Notes: reap
Any research visit is finalized with a report on the visit’s out-
Further you will find reports on research visits supplied by in-
Отчет о научной стажировке в университете де мино рубановой в.в.
Section vb bresearch supervision
University. compare it with what you have at bsu.
Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students
Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor.
Write an essay on
Kent faculty, professor eglit served in several capacities, including
Clarity of writing.
Typical sections.
Title of the report.
Examples of an introduction
Acknowledgments.
Making oral presentations
Making the presentation.
Study the texts given below, use additional information re-
Economics has been recognized as a special area of study for over a century. the term economics
Understanding history
Summary making
Now try to translate a summary of a scientific paper from rus-
Section vii
In the extraction from scientific prose given below we hope not
Complete the sentences supplying them with information on
Below find the speculations of a former postgraduate student
Summarizing translation can be helpful for you while compos-
Below there follows a summary of the research conducted in
What is biology?
What is chemistry
Physics what exactly is physics? what discoveries
What is philosophy
What is sociology
Journalism is information
Communication
Theories of communication
Applying theory to practice
List of abbreviations
Краткий русско-английский словарь
Л ляпсус, описка – lapse м
Ф факт – fact функция – function х
Bized http://www.bized.ac.uk/virtual/economy
Business bureau



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