Quality assurance The project leader will be responsible for overall quality assurance, with lead country researchers and the research assistant undertaking specific activities to ensure quality control. Detailed protocols for extracting data from secondary sources will be developed, piloted, refined and agreed in Phase 2. Quality will be assured through routine monitoring by the lead country researcher, and periodic crosschecks against the protocols by the research assistant. While interview and focus group protocols are being developed in Phase 2, standards and systems for note-taking, recording (if possible, transcribing and storing visual data from participatory techniques such as drawings, photographs and video, use of metadata, systems for downloading and storing SMS data (a potential followup research tool) will also be defined. Focus groups and interviews will always involve two researchers. Quality control for the qualitative data collection will be assured through refresher focus group discussion training during research design workshops and to junior researchers, where appropriate. The lead country researcher will check through each transcript for consistency with agreed standards. Where translations are undertaken, quality will be assured by 0ne other researcher fluent in that language checking against the recording or notes.