Training manual July xps


Hawai’i taro patent controversy



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Hawai’i taro patent controversy
In the s nearly all taro in Samoa died out due to leaf blight. Samoan people came to University of Hawaii (UH) faculty member for help. A Researcher collected taro from Hawaii and Palau to create new varieties which showed leaf blight resistance. UH filed fora plant patent on the 3 strains into prevent other people using them without permission. A
licensing agreement was established whereby commercial taro growers would pay US$2/seedling to cover UH costs. Growers could use strains for 3 years gratis. After that period they would pay 3% of profits. There was no charge for private use. Commercial growers had to agree to UH personnel entering their property to ascertain that they were not illegally breeding UH’s property.


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Farmers criticised UH’s patented varieties, which were developed by simple crossbreeding. Hawaiians say they have practiced crossbreeding for centuries and never patented the progeny. The patenting of the concept of improved bacterial blight resistance resulted in a series of protests by farmers and others concerned about the cultural, environmental and economic aspects of taro research. In 2006 two farmers wrote to UH demanding that the university give up its patents. In Hawaiian culture nothing is considered more sacred than kalo (taro. Wakea, the sky father and
Ho’ohokukalani, gave birth to Haloa, the firstborn, Haloa grew into kalo, the first taro plant. Their second born was man, whose destiny was to care for Haloa. Taking care of kalo, the Hawaiians prospered for over a millennia, during which time their land and water given by the gods were managed by their chiefs for the benefit of all. The concept of landownership was introduced by Western settlers and business in 1848. Hawaiians refer to the subsequent period as the Mahele’ when foreigners took over their land and carved it upturning the gift from the gods into private property. Hawaiians saw the patenting of taro strains as a second ‘Mahele’ as it removed taro from the collective care of Hawaiians and gave it to UH. In 2006, UH filed a terminal disclaimer for the three patents, meaning that it would no longer make claims on the patents and the taro strains were free for anyone to use. Source The Taro Patent Controversy, Kauana Magazine www.kauana.com/Default.aspx?tabid=93
; The Role of Taro in Hawaiian Culture, Molokai Island Times, 2006 www.friendsoftobi.org/misc/research/tarohawaii.htm


Manual contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Training objectives
Style and content of the training programme
Introduction to the trainers
Francis ouruma alacho
Professor satish chandra
Chitaku g. mucheleng’anga
Dr gregory robin
Professor keith tomlins
Course timetable
Module one writing research proposals
Value chain approaches
Table 2.1 concept note content
Expected results
Organisation
Other related
Why is it important to the scientific world – what
Practice makes perfect!!
Split into existing groups
Example of coding an interview script
Undertaking research in value chains
What is a value chain
Fieldwork exercise diagnosis of trc value chain research needs
Ideas for interview questions general
Table 5.1 criteria fora successful interviewer
Module two research methods
Informed consent
Table 7.1 selected patent applications by patent office, broken down by resident and
Source: wipo statistics database, january 2011
Module three capturing intellectual property rights
Table 8.1: summary of types of intellectual property and what they protect
Certification marks
Potato”. ab geographical indication (gi)
Plant breeders' rights (pbr)
Protection of new plant varieties
Exercise: who owns ip
Source: makerere university (2010) process map for to-be process – inv 1.1 protection-patenting.
Chapter ten building a community of practice
References/further reading
Research methods
Intellectual property rights
Appendix 1 understanding and using development terms
Stakeholders
Information on data
Quality assurance
Backup and security
Expected difficulties in data sharing
Preparation of data for sharing and archiving
Appendix 4 research funding bodies
African union research grant call
Bill & melinda gates foundation, usa
Gdn’s global research capacity building program on research
International foundation for science
Leverhulme-royal society africa award
Newton international fellowships scheme
Rockefeller foundation
Start (system for analysis research and training)
The africa/asia/latin america scholarly collaborative program
The cgiar research program on climate change, agriculture, and food
The food security center (fsc) university of hohenheim, germany
Third world academy of sciences
World bank – development marketplace
Appendix 5 check your proposal
It is important not to
Typical comments from evaluators of eu research proposals (corn, 2010)
Final advice from the eu/checklist
Appendix 6 course forms
Strongly agree
End of training evaluation form


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