Plant breeders' rights (PBR) also known as plant variety protection (PVP) are rights that accrue to a breeder that has developed new plant varieties. PBR enable breeders to charge royalties for protected varieties. Royalties provide a means for
89 breeding companies to fund their work. PBR entitle the holder to prevent anyone propagating material without authority. Patents can also be obtained for new plant varieties. Trademark protection maybe relevant for the establishment of brands with commercial value. Protection of new plant varieties is normally fora term of 20 years. Both patents and PVP are enforceable only in the countries for which protection is granted. Copyright: gives authors and other creators automatic legal protection to benefit from the sale of their published expressions of ideas contained in a selected format, e.g. books, journals and CD-ROMs, computer programmes, etc. The right is normally held for the entire life of the author/creator plus 50 years after their death. Copyrights accrue to the originator of the works from the day of publication. There is no need to apply for copyright registration by the originator. Related rights are rights accrued through artistic performances, phonogram recordings, broadcasting, etc. of copyrighted materials. The Berne Convention for the Protection for Literary and Artistic Works (1886 and revisions) is one of the international conventions dealing with copyright and related rights protection. Exploitation of these various IP rights in the marketplace provides the owner with an income as compensation for their work and investment in the generation of that particular IP. Protection of intellectual property rights is provided for through the laws promulgated by countries and those governed by conventions agreed to by member states for the sake of such protection.