CONTENTS Foreword Preface Part 1: Team Gleason An Interlude Poetic Part 2: Learning Tools Afterword Appendix Acknowledgments Accessibility Resources
1 FOREWORD By Peter Lee A few years ago, longtime Microsoft engineer Jay Beavers who you will read more about in this book, along with several others, rolled into my office in a motorized wheelchair controlled by the gaze of his eyes. I should have been thrilled. After all, I was just starting on a difficult assignment to create anew breed of product-engineering team that might be more proficient at harnessing the enormous firepower of Microsoft Research. I was desperate to find researchers with promising ideas, the thought being that I could attempt to get from concept to product as quickly as possible by investing engineering, design and program-management resources around them. Jay was exactly the type of person I was looking for. And he just dropped — or rolled — right into my office. Now, as you read this book it will sound a bit like I heroically jumped at the chance to invest in the wheelchair project. But, in fact, my initial reaction, which I tried hard to hide from the team, was one of annoyance. OK, I thought, here we have a hackathon-winning project with a feelgood story involving a famous athlete, Steve Gleason. Great. But is this a team motivated more by PR than by real-world impact I was frankly suspicious of their motives. And how on earth would we get something like this to market Microsoft would almost certainly never get into the business of selling wheelchairs (even AI-powered ones. And finally, I was getting tired of seeing pitches involving lots of demos but lacking any grounding in a
solid business concept. I had lost interest in investing infancy demos. I wanted new products with areal chance for sustainable real-world impact. In my grumpiness, I kept a forced smile and was on the verge of politely telling Jay, and the others who came with him, the deadly I will think about it and get back to you, thank you But then, somehow, the discussion turned. Someone brought up unforeseen shortcomings in the system architecture that became apparent once the team started working with Steve Gleason. Another person started to explain concepts in user-centered design, inclusive design, universal design, and what these implied for software design and engineering. Jay described the rapid feedback cycle of design<->engineering<->real-world use and what this meant for Windows and our development stack. And as the discussion wore on, it became more obvious that maybe there was actually something special going on here, something that was authentically devoted to empowering people. The whole encounter took no more than 10 or 15 minutes, but ultimately was as convincing as any minute whizzy PowerPoint-powered project pitch could ever be. It had several crucial moments and, in the end, led to the decision to fund an initial productization effort, with the first requirement being to define objectively assessable impact goals and the concrete plan forgetting there. My colleague, Rico Malvar, kindly took on the task of guiding this process, growing the team, connecting it across the company and, ultimately, instilling solid product-engineering discipline while at the same time accommodating the free-flowing mindset of research.
Other people like Ann Paradiso, who had critical design skills that we needed, were cajoled over beers at a local pub and reassured that joining this unusual team wouldn’t be a career-stifling move. Now, several years later, key technologies from this project, such as Eye Control, are standard features in Windows 10, and the path to new, more natural and accessible ways of interacting with computers, such as speech, mobility and other skills, is clearer than ever. The process has brought us closer to technology partners inside and outside of Microsoft. Even more importantly, it has gotten us tightly integrated with teams of PALS — People with ALS — who have worked so hard with us to make the technology real. As you might imagine, all of this gives us feelings of tremendous satisfaction. But we also understand keenly that we — and the Microsoft development community at large — still have a huge amount of work to do. Looking back on this episode, it was one of the most important growth experiences for me personally and contributed fundamentally to the culture of the New Experiences in Technology (NExT) organization that has grownup within Microsoft since then and helped to influence a number of projects born from Microsoft Research. The other major story in this book, on Learning Tools, involves a different set of players in a different part of Microsoft, and was born in a different set of circumstances. But in what I think of as the most relevant characteristics, the story of Learning Tools shares the same lessons and opportunities for personal and organizational growth. I know through my interactions with several of that team’s members that we have all begun to internalize into our
engineering cultures the seemingly simple but ultimately subtle idea a focus on inclusion helps a team become more empathetic with its users, which in turn affects deeply the design and development process of products. Inclusion injects crucial energy into rapid feedback cycles that is core to innovation. Inclusive design also creates better products. In the same way the Eye Control project has affected the innovation process in Microsoft Research and NExT, I can see that Learning Tools is having an effect on the culture in the Microsoft Office and Windows teams. The final part of this book is important to all of us at Microsoft, though we recognize it only as the start of a journey to innovate through empowerment. This part presents a catalog of some of our existing accessibility features and technologies. The catalog is humble and not exhaustive, but at least for us, putting it together was an important exercise because it forces a change in perspective. By looking at our entire software development stack through the lens of inclusion, and sharing with all of you, we start down the path of conceptualizing software development differently. My colleague, Jenny Lay-Flurrie, uses the phrase innovating through ability and innovating through disability This seems so apt now, because reflecting on the contents of this book, I have come to learn an important lesson about the nature of innovation. Often, when we think about technological innovation, we think about technological disruption. But for meat least, the main lesson is that innovation comes more from an intent to empower than from an intent to disrupt. We hope you will be motivated to contribute and embark with us on this
journey of empowerment and inclusion together. There was a palpable sense of this being important. Microsoft should be doing this. We have the people and the resources. That was the main vibe. - Microsoft engineer on building an eye-controlled wheelchair.
6 PREFACE This is the story of two Microsoft hackathon teams, one in the summer of 2014 and one the following summer of 2015. The first would pioneer new software to revolutionize the mobility of tens of thousands of people who live with severe paralysis caused by ALS, Parkinson’s, cerebral palsy and traumatic neurological injuries. The second team would pioneer software to help kids with dyslexia read and love learning for the first time in their lives. It’s the story of two small groups of driven, focused and passionate software engineers, program managers, marketers and advocates. It’s the story of realizing the transformative power of technology for people with disabilities, not just for traditional consumer and industrial markets. It’s the story of ignoring the company’s and the industry’s checkered past in making inclusive technology, and doing something truly great — improving outcomes for everyone, discovering a design ethos and blazing anew trail for accessibility. More than one billion people around the world live with a disability of some kind, and it’s estimated two-thirds of us know someone with a disability. This book explores an optimistic belief that computer software and hardware can empower people with disabilities in a multitude of scenarios. The language used within and about this important community is not without controversy. Disability is not a term we shy away from, though it is imperfect. In their 2005 writing collection, Beyond Victims and
Villains Contemporary Plays by Disabled Playwrights, the contributors were united in rejecting euphemistic terms for disability and universalizing stories or narratives of disability, and united in their refusal to accept the subtext of superiority that underlies the charitable gesture None of the writers in this anthology identify as physically challenged differently abled” or “handi-capable,” the terms for disability so easily satirized in popular culture. In the early s, a group of young people with significant disabilities, calling themselves the Rolling Quads decided to throw off the invisibility cloak of shame and reclaim the negative term disability as a banner of pride and power. The first generation of disability civil rights activists hoped fora similar rehabilitation of literary and social identity by self-consciously reclaiming the terms disability and disabled There were many important moments over the 20 years that led to the landmark federal action. Framers of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) said a person is considered to have a disability if he or she: • Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one of more of the major life activities of such an individual • Has a record of such an impairment Is regarded as having such an impairment Many today, however, reject the term impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO, for example, made the following statement: Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments,
activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Overcoming the difficulties faced by people with disabilities requires interventions to remove environmental and social barriers. Almost everyone will be temporarily or permanently impaired at some point in life, and those who survive to old age will experience increasing difficulties in functioning, according to the WHO. Cliff Kuang at Co.Design once wrote that we stand at the end of along line of inventions, which might have never existed, but for the disabled In 1808, Pellegrino Turri built the first typewriter so his blind lover could write letters more legibly. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone to support his work helping the deaf. And in 1972, Vint Cerf programmed the first email protocols for the nascent Internet. Email was the only seamless way to communicate with his wife, who was deaf, while he was at work. As one engineer interviewed for this project said, Its not about the technology. It’s about the people