ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – V 18-2-58 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION There are several reasons for the increase of HC emissions at low cold start temperatures, including the tendency for fuel to be deposited on the cylinder walls, which is then displaced during the piston cycle and expunged during the exhaust stroke. As the engine warms up through operation, the cylinder walls no longer retain a film of fuel and most of the hydrocarbons will be burnt off during the combustion process. The SAI pump is used to provide a supply of air into the exhaust ports in the cylinder head, onto the back of the exhaust valves, during the cold start period. The hot unburnt fuel particles leaving the combustion chamber mix with the air injected into the exhaust ports and immediately combust. This subsequent combustion of the unburnt and partially burnt CO and HC particles help to reduce the emission of these pollutants from the exhaust system. The additional heat generated in the exhaust manifold also provides rapid heating of the exhaust system catalytic converters. The additional oxygen which is delivered to the catalytic converters also generate an exothermic reaction which causes the catalytic converters to 'light off' quickly. The catalytic converters only start to provide effective treatment of emission pollutants when they reach an operating temperature of approximately CF) and need to be between temperatures of CF) and CF) for optimum efficiency. Consequently, the heat produced by the secondary air injection after burning, reduces the time delay before the catalysts reach an efficient operating temperature. The engine control module (ECM) checks the engine coolant temperature when the engine is started, and if it is above -9º C but below C, the SAI pump is started. Secondary air injection will remain operational fora period controlled by the ECM. The SAI pump operation can be cut short due to excessive engine speed or load. Air from the SAI pump is supplied to the cylinder head, via a metal pipe which splits the airflow evenly to each bank. At the same time the secondary air pump is started, the ECM operates a SAI vacuum solenoid valve, which opens to allow vacuum from the reservoir to be applied to the non return valve on the metal delivery tube on the engine. Secondary air is injected into the innermost exhaust ports on each bank. When the ECM breaks the ground circuit to de-energise the SAI vacuum solenoid valve, the vacuum supply to the SAI non return valve is cutoff and the valve is closed to prevent further air being injected into the exhaust manifold. At the same time as the SAI vacuum solenoid valve is closed, the ECM opens the ground circuit to the SAI pump relay, to stop the SAI pump. A vacuum reservoir is included in the vacuum line between the intake manifold and the SAI vacuum solenoid valve. This prevents changes in vacuum pressure from the intake manifold being passed onto cause fluctuations of the secondary air injection solenoid valve. The vacuum reservoir contains a one way valve and ensures a constant vacuum is available for the SAI vacuum solenoid valve operation. This is particularly important when the vehicle is at high altitude.
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – V8 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 18-2-59