perceive ambiguous situations as desirable. In foreign language learning, intolerance of
ambiguity has advantages such as learners can guard against the 'wishy-washy' attitude and can
deal with reality of foreign language and system. On the contrary, it has some disadvantages
such as learners may close mind early in the learning process, may become rigid in learning, too
narrow to be creative. (Brown, 2004: 120-121)
In applied linguistics, learner language is well known as an Interlanguage (the language
of the second language learners). This term was first coined by Selinker (1977; 1997) to draw
attention to the fact that the learner’s language system in neither that of the mother-tongue nor
native language (NL) nor that of the target language (TL). The learner’s language system
system (which constitutes the learner’s initial knowledge) and the second language system
(which constitutes the target language) we can say that at any given period of L2 development,
the learner speaks an interlanguage. Thus, the significant feature of an interlanguage is the
existence of error, often referred to as learner error or interlanguage error.
There are several other terms related to interlanguage which have become current such as
(1) Transitional Competence, (2) Idiosyncratic Dialect, and (3) Approximative System.
Transitional Competence is proposed by Corder (1977) to indicate the fact that learners are
developing knowledge of Second Language. Idiosyncratic Dialect (Corder, 1977) is to specify
the view that the learner is speaking an Idiosyncratic Dialect. At any given time, the learner
operates a self-contained language variety (dialect), many aspects of his language is unique
(idiosyncratic) to the individual learner. Approximative System proposed by Nemser (1971)
gives emphasis that the learner’s language has its own system, which is apprtoximative in nature,
more or less close to the full second (target) language system. The most popular term is the one
proposed by Selinker (1977; 1997), that is, an Interlanguage. This term has been used most
frequently of all.
In his “Rediscovering of Interlanguage”, Selinker (1997) confirms that interlanguage is a
universal phenomenon. In general, it deals with the creation of a new ‘inter-systems’ when
someone tries to learn other system or it happens when learners learn a new language other than
his mother tongue (L2, L3 etc.)
As a language system, interlanguage has specific features different from other natural
languages. Adjemian (1976) Selinker (1977; 1997), Yip (1995), and Saville-Troike (2006)
discuss four important characteristics of interlanguage: (1) systematic, (2) permeable, (3)
dynamic, and (4) fossilization.