APPENDIX 1: TEN MAIN PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE MEMBER STATES AS THEY ENDEAVOR TO SCALE UP HIV TESTING AND COUNSELLING WHO EUROPE, Scaling up HIV testing and counselling in the WHO European Region as an essential component of efforts to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support, 2010. This policy framework contains ten main principles and provides detailed recommendations to guide member states as they endeavor to scale up HIV testing and counselling. Scaling up HIV testing and counselling is both a public health and human rights imperative and must be linked to broader efforts to achieve universal access to comprehensive, evidence-based HIV prevention, treatment, care and support (page. Expanded HIV testing and counselling must be tailored to different settings, populations and client needs (page 5). Efforts to increase access to and uptake of HIV testing and counselling should include implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling in health facilities when appropriate (page 6). Efforts to increase access to and uptake of HIV testing and counselling must meet the needs of most-at-risk and vulnerable populations and expand beyond clinical settings and involve civil society and community-based organizations in providing HIV testing and counselling services (page 8). Rapid HIV tests should be used where appropriate (page 9). Regardless of where and how HIV testing is done, it must always be voluntary and with the informed consent of the person being tested, adequate pretest information or counselling, post-test counselling, protection of confidentiality and referral to services (page 10). HIV testing policies and practices should be reviewed to eliminate any non-voluntary forms of testing (page 12). Efforts to increase access to and uptake of HIV testing and counselling must be accompanied by equal efforts to ensure supportive social, policy and legal environments page 12). In each country, consultations should be undertaken to formulate plans for expanded HIV testing and counselling based on this framework (page 13). Efforts to expand access to HIV testing and counselling must be carefully monitored and evaluated (page 14).