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2.2

Community-based approach – Community health

Among the numerous existing definitions, we believe that the definition which suits our topic best is the one that defines a community as a group of people with diverse characteristics who are linked by social ties, share common perspectives, and engage in joint action in geographical locations or settings Within the CBVCT framework, the notion of community only makes sense in relation to preexisting action and longstanding communities are not necessarily ready to launch a community-based programme. Most of the time, a community is created when individuals or groups are able to mobilize themselves towards a commonly identified goal. This mobilization is based on shared interests and implies the participation of the community throughout the project. Thus, the proof that a community exists is the capacity of its members to act cooperatively. In order to launch a community dynamic that can truly bring social openness, a collective responsibility to deal with common preoccupations based on a willingness to take care of oneself must exist. Furthermore, this approach is not compatible with a purely epidemiological approach which works with clearly labeled population categories. Our definition of community aims to avoid classifying populations
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WHO, Measuring sexual health conceptual and practical considerations and related indicators, 2010 7
KM. MacQueen et al. What Is Community An Evidence-Based Definition for Participatory Public Health, Am J Public Health, 2001 December


15 with labels that might be perceived by the community as strict and simplistic, and which could prevent people from self-identifying as belonging to such a category. The European Community Health Practices Network (ECHPN)
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- in agreement with the World Health Organization – underlines the role of Community Health as one of the strategies of Health Promotion implementation as defined in the Ottawa Charter. According to the ECHPN, community health approaches share the following main characteristics A collective base (a group of residents, a group gathered fora problem, a situation of dependence or an objective for an action or actions to develop. A collective identification of problems, needs and resources (a community analysis. All stakeholders can participate users, specialists, professionals (from the most diverse fields, administrations and politicians, which means the implication of the population in identifying the problem, to mobilize their capacities, for their participation in the whole process, and professional de-compartmentalization.
“Community development draws on existing human and material resources in the community to enhance self-help and social support, and to develop flexible systems for strengthening in public participation and direction of health matters. This requires full and continuous access to information, learning opportunities for health, as well as funding support”
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June 2017 2
Theoretical framework regarding the implementation of cbvct .......................... 12
The main objective of this document
How this guide was created.
Definition, objectives and methodology of this guide
How this document should be used.
The objectives of this guide are
The methodology and sources of information used for
European and non-european guidelines
We can state that this document was created from existing experiences in european cbvct centers
A few caveats
Health & sexual health promotion approaches
What is health promotion
Cbvct in scaling up strategies
Community-based approach
Quality assurance approach
The european quality instrument for health promotion (equihp)
Quality assurance
Figure 1 - dynamics of health promotion projects
Easier access to testing by taking the needs of hard-to-reach populations into
Community based vct can have an impact on three levels:
To foster cbvt accessibility for most-at-risk and hard- to-reach populations,
To be compatible with people’s daily lives, cbvct should
For a positive and comprehensive approach to health and sexual health,
To guarantee sustainability, cbvct services need to
Cbvct implementation among and with populations
Fixed or mobile cbvct programmes should consider
Staff and people involved in cbvct
Items sub-items
Cbvct practices
Before the test
C) after the test
Negative result
Support after positive result
Confidentiality, anonymity, privacy
System for conducting assessments of service quality at cbvct centres
Consistency with health promotion principles
Project management
Sustainability
Appendix 1: ten main principles to guide member states as they endeavor to scale up hiv
Appendix 2: self-evaluation tool
How do we encourage participation in the self-assessment?
Preparing the materials
Filling in the self-assessments grids
Our project forms partnerships to help ensure a global response
Scale of the self-
The cbvct project is based on a participative analysis of
The healthcare services that are being offered are adapted
Regarding your practice …
Our organisation / project is developing its ability to
Regarding your practice…

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