Fsck − The unix† File System Check Program

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Fsck − The UNIX File System Check Program
Marshall Kirk McKusick
Computer Systems Research Group
Computer Science Division
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720
T. J. Kowalski
Bell Laboratories
Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974
This document reflects the use of fsck with the BSD and BSD file system organization. This is a revision of the original paper written by T. J. Kow alski.
File System Check Program (fsck) is an interactive file system check and repair program. Fsck uses the redundant structural information in the UNIX file system to perform several consistency checks. If an inconsistency is detected, it is reported to the operator, who may elect to xor ignore each inconsistency. These inconsistencies result from the permanent interruption of the file system updates, which are performed every time ale is modified. Unless there has been a hardware failure, fsck is able to repair corrupted file systems using procedures based upon the order in which UNIX honors these
file system update requests.
The purpose of this document is to describe the normal updating of the file system,
to discuss the possible causes of file system corruption, and to present the corrective actions implemented by fsck. Both the program and the interaction between the program and the operator are described.
Revised October 7, UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories.
This work was done under grants from the National Science Foundation under grant MCS80-05144, and the
Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DoD) under Arpa Order No. 4031 monitored by Naval Electronic
System Command under Contract No. N00039-82-C-0235.

SMM:3-2 The
File System Check Program

Table of contents
Can’t stat fcan’t make sense out of name
Impossible minfree=
Magic number wrong
Can not read blk
Partially truncated inode
Link count table overflow (continue)
Excessive bad blks
Bad state ddd to blkerr
Partially allocated inode i=
Root inode unallocated (allocate)
Cannot allocate root inode
I out of range i=
Zero length directory i=
Directory corrupted i=
Missing ‘.’ i=
Extra ‘.’ entry i=
Missing ‘..’ i=
Extra ‘..’ entry i=
Bad state s for root inode
No lost+found directory (create)
Sorry. cannot create lost+found directory
Sorry. no space in lost+found directory
Directory f length
Unref file i=
No space left in /lost+found (expand)
Link count type i=

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