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Foreword
BAT WORKERS MANUAL have almost all been retained with some updated diagrams where necessary to reflect the changes in health and safety practices.
The third edition has retained a number of case studies on a variety of subjects, which were new to the second edition. These provide a useful perspective on the practical problems that confront bat-workers from time to time and suggest solutions that could be adapted to other circumstances. Good case studies have proved hard to find and we are very grateful to those individuals or organisations who have contributed.
In 1987, the original manual was one of the few publications available to guide practical bat work in the UK. We are now in the fortunate position of having a much greater range of publications available on a variety of topics, such as the use of bat-detectors, habitat conservation, survey work or the construction or modification of roosts of various types. Clearly a manual cannot, and should not,
duplicate these, but we have tried to give a brief introduction to these subjects and to suggest sources of further information. An example is the expanding use of bat-detectors, which were barely mentioned in the first edition. Since then the development of technology and fieldcraft have led to a great advance in their use. Overall, the change in balance of the manual reflects some of the changes that have happened in bat conservation over the last 15 years. For example, there has been less focus on the impact of remedial timber treatment, following the adoption of safer chemicals, whereas the importance of field survey work away from roosts has increased. The importance of public relations and problem-solving fora group of species that depend so heavily on buildings has remained a central theme.
The manual is the product of extensive consultation with many individuals involved in bat conservation and has benefited greatly from their input. It has been impossible to include all the suggestions we have received, but we hope this expanded publication will continue to serve the needs of bat conservationists.
Tony Mitchell-Jones
Andrew McLeish

As with the first edition, many people helped with the revision and improvement of the second edition,
either through general comments and discussion or by contributing sections to particular chapters. General help was provided by David Bullock and Miriam Glendell (National Trust, Amy Coyte,
Tony Hutson, Shirley Thompson and Phil
Richardson (Bat Conservation Trust, Rob Raynor
(Scottish Natural Heritage, Ruth Warren
(Countryside Council for Wales, Gloucester Bat
Group, Patty Briggs, Stuart Corbett, Tom McOwat,
Louise Oliver and Gill Hinchcliffe.
Chapter 11 benefited greatly from additional information from Frank Greenaway (caves and mines, Geoff Billington (bridges) and Mike


Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Survey and monitoring
Day surveys of potential roost structures
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Identification
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Wing span, and head and body length
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only



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