Bat work manual 26 (3791)


Identifying and counting bats in



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3.4.3 Identifying and counting bats in
roosts
Identification
Bats roost in a wide variety of sites within buildings,
so the ease with which the bats can be seen is very variable. The horseshoe bats are probably the easiest to identify because they generally hang inaccessible locations and are readily distinguished by size difference. Long-eared bats sometimes hang in obvious locations, often clinging onto timbers near the apex of the roof. However, many of the vespertilionid bats tend to roost in cracks and crevices, often using narrow spaces under soffits or between roofing felt and slates or weather boarding,
and so can be much more difficult to see. Always try to keep disturbance of bats to a minimum and spend as little time inside the roost as possible,
especially when females are at the end of pregnancy.
Some species are very similar and need to be examined in the hand to be certain of the identification.
Bats can be caught by hand during the day or by static nets placed outside the exit holes at sunset.
When catching at sunset, it is important that a sample of bats is caught at different times because where mixed species are present they can emerge at different times. For example if noctules and
Daubenton’s bats roost together the noctules will emerge at least 30 mins before the Daubenton’s. Although identifying live bats is the most accurate way of determining the species present, it can be disturbing and for some species other methods maybe satisfactory, particularly when the bats are absent or inaccessible. Bat detectors in combination with visual clues can be used to identify species leaving the roost, although confidence in identification is restricted to certain species. Where two or more species are present, species can often be distinguished by size, but there is room for confusion between whiskered and pipistrelle bats and between Daubenton’s and Natterer’s bats. A
well-used roost may contain mummified corpses or skeletons in the guano pile and these can be identified from a key such as that of Yalden (Other clues to the identity of the bats come from the size, shape and texture of the droppings and the presence of host-specific ectoparasites. Further information about the use of droppings for identification can be found in Stebbings (1993).


Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Forewordbat
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Survey and monitoring
Day surveys of potential roost structures
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Wing span, and head and body length
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Identification
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only



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