Bat work manual 26 (3791)


Day surveys of potential roost structures



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Day surveys of potential roost structures
Inspecting every building or structure (e.g. trees,
bridges, barns, outhouses) likely to be inhabited by bats during the day is a time-consuming process.
However, survey time can be reduced if roost preferences of individual species are taken into account. For instance, long-eared and lesser horseshoe bats show a marked preference for older buildings, while pipistrelles are commonly found in modern buildings. Daubenton’s bats are frequently found roosting underneath bridges, and noctule colonies are most frequently found in big trees.
When surveying buildings, ask the householder first whether bats are known to be present. A negative response should be treated with some caution because, often, bats are present without the householder’s knowledge, but positive replies should always be followed up. Carefully survey the outside of the building for droppings, paying particular attention to sheltered areas such as window ledges or pipes where droppings can lie undisturbed.
Cobwebs can often trap droppings and are always worth a close inspection. Scan the outside of the building for potential access points such as broken ventilation bricks or loose slates and look for droppings under these points (see also Hutson 1987, Search the loft space, although check with the householder first about safety and potential hazards
(see Chapter 2). Gable ends and chimneys are often roosting points for pipistrelles and serotines,
although long-eared bats can be found anywhere

along the roof ridge. Look for droppings and listen for squeaking or movement from between the tiles and felt on hot days. Bats have frequently been found drowned in open water tanks, so it is always worthwhile to check them.
It is hard to locate tree roosts by day surveys because there are often no external signs of bat occupancy. One technique is to survey trees in winter when the foliage is not present and look for obvious holes. If large colonies use them in the
3.4 LOC ATION OF KEY SITES AND FEEDING AREAS
31
summer the wood maybe smoothed at the entrance.
Brown staining from urine, faeces or fur rubbing can be present but often brown stains are connected with rot so their presence is not conclusive. Likely trees can be marked and revisited in the summer at sunset to watch for emerging bats. On hot days colonies are active and can be quite noisy so it is possible to walk through woods listening for the sounds of colonies. Walking through woodland an hour before sunrise during July and August can also reveal roosts (see Appendix 4).


Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Forewordbat
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Survey and monitoring
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Identification
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Wing span, and head and body length
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only



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