Bat work manual 26 (3791)

Wasp, bee and hornet nests

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Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Wasp nests are the most common. Occupied nests should not be disturbed and if you encounter one you may wish to consider abandoning the visit because being stung (or trying to avoid being stung)
could put you at risk of a fall.
2.4 Safety underground
Survey or monitoring work in caves and mines requires particular attention to safety because the potential fora serious accident is probably greater than in buildings. Inexperienced workers must seek advice and practical guidance from an experienced caver, who should have the appropriate equipment and be familiar with good caving practice. Guides to good caving practice and techniques are available from the mining and caving organisations listed in
Appendix 6. A glossary of caving and mining terms is given in Appendix 2. A sample risk assessment for entry into disused mines is given in Appendix Training in underground techniques, with a firm emphasis on safety, is available from a variety of sources. Courses specifically for bat workers are organised at irregular intervals by some bat groups.
Caving clubs and outdoor centres often run a range of courses, and videos and books are available on simple and vertical caving. Specialist caving equipment suppliers can also bean excellent source of advice on the type of equipment that will be required.
The following safety rules are expanded from safety codes produced by caving and mine-history organisations.

Never go alone. Even the simplest accident can immobilise alone caver and lead ultimately to death from exposure. Don’t split up underground and always ensure the party is within shouting distance. A party of four is the minimum recommended size, so that one can stay with an injured person while two go for help.

Always tell a reliable person where you are going and what time you expect to be back.

Take spare lights. Although purpose-built mining or caving lights are reliable, accidents and equipment failures do happen. Make sure that there is always at least one spare light in the party and it is preferable that each member carries their own spare. Chemical lights
(Cyalume) can be carried for emergencies, though their low light output restricts their usefulness.

Wear appropriate clothing. Caves and mines are generally between 8 and C (although some sites, e.g. disused railway tunnels, can be cooler C, so for dry caves normal outdoor clothing is appropriate. Wet sites are more of a problem because heat loss through wet clothing is considerably higher. Wet or dry suits are the preferred solution for many keen cavers, but a good combination for bat workers is a waterproof oversuit together with either a fleece undersuit or old clothes and thermal underwear. Wellingtons are often the best footwear.

Take appropriate equipment and know how to use it. Many levels, adits and caves can be entered without any special equipment, but even apparently straightforward horizontal passages can contain hidden hazards, such as unsafe floors and roofs, shafts covered with rotting timber or deep water. Abandoned mines should always be treated with extreme caution and old timber or metalwork should never be touched, let alone trusted. Vertical shafts should be attempted only with adequate safety equipment and never without proper training on the surface beforehand. The use of wire caving ladders (electron ladders) and SRT (single rope technique) should never be attempted underground until full proficiency is achieved above ground.

Try to obtain a survey map of the site before the visit. These are sometimes available through local caving clubs. In all but the simplest sites it would be prudent to take a guide who knows the system because it is quite easy to get lost underground.

Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Survey and monitoring
Day surveys of potential roost structures
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Wing span, and head and body length
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only

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