i) To disturb or take bats in hibernacula for survey purposes Visits to caves, mines, tunnels or other areas known to be regularly used for hibernation can cause disturbance to the bats that hibernate there. Such visits need to be regulated, and licences to disturb hibernating bats will be issued only to applicants who have demonstrated an understanding of the dangers involved and shown themselves to be careful workers. Survey of caves or mines for previously unknown hibernation sites does not require a licence, provided that the visit is abandoned once bats are discovered. Experienced workers monitoring hibernacula for scientific or survey purposes may wish to be able to handle bats from time to time, for example to monitor their physiological condition or to check the identity of unusual specimens. In practice, experienced surveyors rarely touch bats. The standard survey licence is usually valid for all species of bat, but exceptions can be made for very sensitive species in particular areas, such as disturbance or handling of horseshoe bats in those areas where they occur. However, members of bat groups who have shown themselves to be valuable and responsible licence holders will not normally be excluded from dealing with any species of baton the basis that they will know very well which are the most sensitive species for their area and will not wish to cause disturbance if this can be avoided. It is rarely necessary to take hibernating bats under licence for conservation purposes, as rescuing bats in an emergency can be done without a licence.