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References and further reading
BAKER, AS. & CRAVEN, J.C. 2003. Checklist of the mites (Arachnida: Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the British Isles.
Systematic & Applied Acarology Special
Publications, 14, 1–20.
2000. Reproductive Biology of Bats. Academic Press, London/San Diego. 510 pp. ISBN 0 12 195670 9.
S.A. 1998. The reproductive cycle and determination of sexual maturity in male brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus. Journal of
Zoology (London), 244, EVANS, GO, SHEALS, JG, & MACFARLANE, Di Terrestrial Acari of the British Isles.

Vol. 1. Introduction and biology. British Museum
(Natural History, London. 219 pp.
HUTSON, AM. 1971. Ectoparasites of British bats.
Mammal Review, 1, 143–150.
HUTSON, AM. 1984. Keds, flat flies and bat flies,
Diptera, Hippoboscidae and Nycteribiidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. Royal Entomological Society of London.
KUNZ, T.H.(ed.). 1988. Ecological and Behavioural
Methods for the Study of Bats. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington/London. 533 pp.
LANZA, BI Parassiti dei Pipistrelli
(Mammalia, Chiroptera) della Fauna Italiana.
Monografie 30. Museo Regionale di Scienze
Naturali, Torino. 318 pp. ISSN 1121 7545,
ISBNB 88 86041 25 X.
PERICART, J. 1972. Hémipteres Anthocoridae,
Cimicidae, Microphysidae de l’Ouest-
Paléarctique. Faune de l’Europe et du Bassin
Méditerranéen. 7. 402 pp. Masson et Cie. Paris.
RACEY, PA. 1974. Ageing and assessment of reproductive status of pipistrelle bats
Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Journal of Zoology
(London), 173, 264–271.
SMIT, F.G.A.M. 1957. Siphonaptera. Handbooks
for the identification of British insects, 1(16). Royal Entomological Society of London. 94 pp.
USINGER, R.L. 1966. Monograph of Cimicidae. Vol 7). 585 pp. Thomas Say Foundation
KING, AA. AND HUTSON, AM. 1996. Ten year survey of British bats for the existence of rabies.
Veterinary Record, 139, 491–493.

Greater horseshoe bat in cave. © Frank Greenaway

Recognition of individual animals plays an important part in much ecological research in many taxonomic groups. Marking can provide information about persistence and faithfulness to roosts, population dynamics, social behaviour, feeding ecology and almost every facet of bat ecology. Several techniques are available, few of them perfect, and the method used will depend on the species, duration and aims of the project. All methods of marking affect the subject to a greater or lesser extent, and research that requires individual recognition should not be undertaken without a careful appraisal of the risks involved and the potential harm to the bats. All marking methods require a specific SNCO licence.
A Home Office licence is also required for activities involving invasion of the tissue of the bat. Further guidelines on marking are in preparation through the Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats (Eurobats).

Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Survey and monitoring
Day surveys of potential roost structures
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Wing span, and head and body length
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only

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