Bat work manual 26 (3791)



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5.6.2 Ectoparasites
Many arthropods live on bats for at least part of their lives. In Britain these include a variety of mites (Acari), species of flea (Siphonaptera), bat-flies
(Diptera, Nycteribiidae) and bat-bugs (Hemiptera,
Cimicidae). These parasites are in a very vulnerable position and so have become very specialised in their morphology, physiology, life cycle and ecology.
For this reason they are of interest in themselves,
although relatively little is known of the composition of the fauna occurring on British bats, or, for individual species, of their distribution, host-specificity, ecology and, in the case of mites, even their food. We also know little of the relationships between many of the parasites and their hosts and about any role they may play in the transmission of disease organisms.
The study of these parasites can also provide additional information about the bats.
Some mites are so small that a hand lens is required to see them on the host most are reasonably visible at least to the practised eye. Parasites can be found by inspecting the flight membrane, feet, ears and face and by blowing through the fur. They can be carefully removed with fine forceps or a fine paintbrush and are best stored in 70-80% alcohol.
Some of the insects are very agile, but they can be immobilised with a dab of ethyl acetate. Some mites maybe very firmly attached and there is the possibility of leaving mouthparts embedded in the host. Not only does this create problems of identification of the parasite, but there is a risk of the embedded parts causing an infection.
Specimens should be stored in small tubes of alcohol with full data of host, position on host, locality, date and collector. Some specimens will need to be
CHAPTER 5 EXAMINING BATS
54
mounted on slides. Full details of preparation and storage are given in some of the identification guides, or the advice of an expert should be sought.
A general guide to ectoparasites can be found in
Hutson (1971). A detailed catalogue of the parasites recorded from bat species occurring in Italy (which includes all UK species) can be found in Lanza (1999).


Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Forewordbat
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Survey and monitoring
Day surveys of potential roost structures
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Identification
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Wing span, and head and body length
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only



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