Bat work manual 26 (3791)


Wing span, and head and body length



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Wing span, and head and body length
These are often quoted in books, but they are not useful field measurements because too much variation in measuring technique is possible. Their main use is in conveying the size of bats to the public.
Ear length
Take the longest measurement from the notch at the anterior base of the pinna to the tip. Ensure that the ears of Plecotus are fully extended.
Tragus width
Take the greatest width. In Plecotus it maybe necessary to eliminate curvature by slightly bending the tragus at its widest point.
Tragus length
Record the maximum length from base to tip,
ignoring curved edges.
Forearm
With the wing folded, take the maximum measurement from elbow to wrist. With the elbow of the bat resting on the movable jaw of the callipers,
the callipers are adjusted to the correct maximum length when you can see or feel slight movement of the skin of the wrist against the fixed jaw as the forearm is rotated within the jaws of the callipers.


Fifth digit
Measure from the inside (posterior) of the wrist to the tip of the finger. This is best done on a flat surface.
This measurement is needed to distinguish Pipistrellus pipistrellus from P. nathusii. This is a difficult measurement to take accurately and some authors use a measurement from outside the wrist to the fingertip as an easier and more reliable measurement.
Calcar
The length of the calcar compared with the total length of the edge of the uropatagium is an aid to identification of some species (e.g. whiskered and
Daubenton’s). The calcar will not be perfectly straight, but spread the tail membrane and measure the chord from the base of the calcar at the ankle to the tip and similarly from the tip of the calcar to where the membrane joins the tail.
5.4 Weight
The weight of an individual bat can vary by as much as 50% seasonally and by a considerable,
although lesser, percentage over a hour period.
These factors must be borne in mind when comparing weights of individuals or population samples.
Weights are of greatest value in long-term studies of growth and body condition, and there is little point in amassing data in a casual way.
Two convenient types of spring balance are available.
A g Pesola (long scale) balance can be used for all British species and can be read to an accuracy of g. Other Pesola balances (including the 30-g)
and the much cheaper Salter balances should only be read to an accuracy of 0.5 g. The balance should swing free from the ring at the top either from a fixed hook or from a well supported hand. Ensure that the balance and bat are free from obstruction and that weighing is carried out in a draught-free environment.
Torpid bats can be hung by the feet onto the clasp of the balance. Active bats should be enclosed in a small cloth bag and the difference between the weight of the empty bag and the weight of the bag plus bat recorded. The bat must be confined sufficiently to discourage movement without injury. Small cones of cloth open at both ends with the bat's head inserted down into the narrow end of the cone can also be used. If very light cones or bags are used,
the balance can be adjusted to give a reading of
5.3 MEASUREMENTS
53
zero when they are empty, but their weight should be regularly checked, as it will vary.
Remember that a bat’s weight will vary greatly during the course of 24 hours when bats are active. This will put great limits on the use of weight data. Record the time of weighing, using the hour system.
5.5 Rare bats
If a bat, which cannot be identified with a good key or which is clearly a rarity, is found seek expert advice immediately. Help can be obtained from an
SNCO, The Bat Conservation Trust or through local bat group contacts. If it is not possible to arrange fora second opinion from a bat worker or an expert to seethe bat within a reasonable time, take detailed notes before releasing the bat at the site of capture. Weigh the bat and measure the forearm and any other characters used in the identification of species of its genus. Note other non-measurable characters, such as colour, texture and extent of bare areas and of fur the fur colour may change from the base of the hairs to the tip, and such colour banding should also be recorded. Take colour photographs and make sketches if possible.
Make detailed notes of the circumstances in which the bat was found. These details will not only help your record to be accepted, but, by virtue of the fact that such bats are rare, the data will be useful to add to the limited amount of data available on the species.
5.6 Parasites
The word parasite is a loosely used term and here applies to any organism living in close association with a bat for at least part of its life cycle. Parasites fall into two groups – those that live within the bat’s body or in the gut (endoparasites) and those that live on the surface or only very superficially below the skin (ectoparasites). The animal used by these organisms as a means of transport, for food or for shelter is called the host. Usually the bats live in harmony with these parasites, but occasionally
(especially with the endoparasites) disease or debilitation may occur.


Health and safety in bat work
Catching bats
Ringing and marking
Public relations
Conserving and creating bat roosts
Forewordbat
Bat workers manual 09acknowledgements
Bats and the law
Law enforcement – gathering evidence
Convention on the conservation of
Public inquiry confirms importance of lesser horseshoe bat roost
Taking bats into captivity
Advice to the public who find grounded bats
Advice on bats and rabies
Dust and insulation
Wasp, bee and hornet nests
Survey and monitoring
Day surveys of potential roost structures
Case study – bats in barns survey
Case study – the bats in churches project
Identification
Bats and echolocation
Bat detectors
Basic equipment required:
Sonogram analysis
Extraction from hand-nets
Figure 4.1hand-nets. polythene around the lip prevents bats climbing out.figure 4.3
Single-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats44two-pole flicking
Chapter 4 c atching bats463
Testicular descent
Chapter 5 examining bats50figure 5.1
Parturition and lactation
Fur colour and texture
Mites, including ticks (acari)
Bat-bugs (hemiptera, cimicidae)
Fleas (siphonaptera, ischnopsyllidae)
Bat-flies (diptera, nycteribiidae)
Rabies surveillance
Chapter 5 examining bats56sending dead bats by post
References and further reading
Handling, releasing and keeping bats
Moral considerations
Adultstemporary debility or injury likely to heal
Permanent captives
Bat conservation trust - guidelines on bats in captivity
Insects and substitutes
Vitamins and minerals
Weaning and rearing orphaned bats
The role of a bat group
The bat conservation trust
Bats on the internet
Bats in the living area
General fear of bats
Damage to buildings
Transmission of disease
Interior design fora huge roost of (smelly) bats
Legal position (simplified)
Outside the breeding season
Insects in droppings
Speciesnumber of roosts
Summary – exclusion of bats
Summary – visit to householders who have discovered bats
Security alarm systems in buildings
Timber treatment, pest control
During breeding season
If bats are torpid
Fungicidescommon name
If bats are active
Outside breeding season
Fusible link shutters
Case study - window and lintel replacement
Case study - roof refurbishment
Case study – timber treatment and roof renovation
Excessive disturbance
Destruction, maintenance or change of use
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts112figure 11.1
Grade b sites without protection.
Grade 4 (many sites)
Grade 1 (fewer than 10 sites)
Railway tunnel enhancement
Cave construction
Manipulation of airflow and temperature
Reopening of blocked sites
Provision of additional roosting points
Chapter 11 conserving and creating bat roosts122figure 11.5
Figure 11.5 (continued)
Converting a pillbox for bats
Bat conservation code
Wildlife and countryside act 1981 &
Tree preservation orders
Maintaining roosts
Creating roosts
Case histories of bridge maintenance works
Examples of roost creation within bridges
Appendix 1140figure a1.1
Appendix 1142figure a1.1
Appendix 3 9
Grid reference.
Biological records centre single species card
Monitoring methods
Hibernation counts
Bat speciessc
Appendix 4150participation and experience required
A selected bibliography
A european bats – identification,
C children’s books
Appendix 5154d journals, magazines and newsletters
Bat research news
Useful names and addresses
The environment and heritage service
Department for environment, food and rural
Non governmental organisations
National association of mining history
The national trust
Subterranea britannica
Equipment suppliers
Pettersson elektronik ab
Bernies cafe and caving supplies
Watkins and doncaster
Holohil systems ltd
Titley electronics
Jacobi jayne & co
Mealwormslive foods direct ltd
Bat workers training syllabus
Circumstances requiring consultation
Licensinglicensable activities
Appendix 7164other licences
Bat biology and ecology
Basic ecology
Bat conservation
Persecution and intolerance
Presenting bats to the public
Safety underground
Appendix 7168training checklist
Model risk assessment for entry into disused mines (cont)
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures
Model risk assessment for initial entry into derelict and dilapidated buildings and structures (cont)
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces
Model risk assessment for entry into confined spaces (cont)
Health and safety at work etc act 1974
Health and safety legislation
The carriage of dangerous goods
References legislation
Appendix 9178for laboratory use only



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